Saturday, July 23, 2011

Announcing MySQL-MHA: "MySQL Master High Availability manager and tools"

I have published "MySQL MHA" that fully automates MySQL master failover. You can also get commercial support from SkySQL. Let's try MHA today!

Today I'm happy to announce that I have released MySQL-MHA: MySQL Master High Availability manager and tools as an open source software (GPL v2 license). The below is a part of documentation of MHA. I'm glad if you are interested in MHA.

A primary objective of MHA is automating master failover and slave promotion within short (usually 10-30 seconds) downtime, without suffering from replication consistency problems, without spending money for lots of new servers, without performance penalty, without complexity (easy-to-install), and without changing existing deployments. MHA also provides a way for scheduled online master switch: changing currently running master to a new master safely, within a few seconds (normally 0.5-2 seconds) of downtime (blocking writes only).

Difficulties of master failover is one of the biggest issues in MySQL. Many people have been aware of this issue, but in most cases there were not practical solutions. I created MHA to make our (DeNA's) existing 100+ 5.0/5.1/5.5 and future MySQL applications highly available. I think many outside people can also use MHA pretty easily.

Project Info

Project top page:


Source tarball and rpm package (stable release):

The latest source repository (dev release): (Manager source) and (Per-MySQL server source)


Master Failover is not as trivial as you might think. Suppose you run single master and multiple slaves, which is the most common MySQL deployments. If the master crashes, you need to pick one of the latest slaves, promote it to the new master, and let other slaves start replication from the new master. This is actually not trivial. Even though you could identify the latest slave, other slaves might have not received all binary log events. If you let other slaves connect to the new master and start replication, these slaves lose some transactions. This will cause consistency problems. To avoid consistency problems, you need to identify which binlog events are not sent to each slave, and need to apply lost events to each slave before starting replication. This is very complex approach and manually doing recovery correctly is very difficult. This is illustrated in the slides (especially in p.10 as below) that I presented at the MySQL Conference and Expo 2011.

Fig: Master Failover: What makes it difficult?

Currently most of MySQL Replication users are forced to do manual failover on master crashes. But it is not uncommon to result in more than one hour downtime to complete failover. Each slave is not likely to have received the same relay log events, so you may need to fix consistency problems later. Though master crash does not happen so often, it is really serious once it happens.

MHA is invented to fix these issues. MHA provides the following functionality, and can be useful in many deployments where requirements such as high availability, data integrity, almost non-stop master maintenance are desired.

* Automated master monitoring and failover

MHA has a functionality to monitor MySQL master in an existing replication environment, detecting master failure, and doing master failover automatically. Even though some of slaves have not received the latest relay log events, MHA automatically identifies differential relay log events from the latest slave, and applies differential events to other slaves. So all slaves can be consistent. MHA normally can do failover in seconds (9-12 seconds to detect master failure, optionally 7-10 seconds to power off the master machine to avoid split brain, a few seconds for applying differential relay logs to the new master, so total downtime is normally 10-30 seconds). In addition, you can define a specific slave as a candidate master (setting priorities) in a configuration file. Since MHA fixes consistencies between slaves, you can promote any slave to a new master and consistency problems (which might cause sudden replication failure) will not happen.

* Interactive (manual) Master Failover

You can also use MHA for just failover, not for monitoring master. You can use MHA for master failover interactively.

* Non-interactive master failover

Non-interactive master failover (not monitoring master, but doing failover automatically) is also supported. This feature is useful especially when you have already used a software that monitors MySQL master. For example, you can use Pacemaker(Heartbeat) for detecting master failure and virtual ip address takeover, and use MHA for master failover and slave promotion.

* Online switching master to a different host

In many cases, it is necessary to migrate an existing master to a different machine (i.e. the current master has H/W problems on RAID controller or RAM, you want to replace with faster machine, etc). This is not a master crash, but scheduled master maintenance is needed to do that. Scheduled master maintenance causes downtime (at least you can not write master) so should be done as quickly as possible. On the other hand, you should block/kill current running sessions very carefully because consistency problems between different masters might happen (i.e "updating master1, updating master 2, committing master1, getting error on committing master 2" will result in data inconsistency). Both fast master switch and graceful blocking writes are required.
MHA provides a way to do that. You can switch master gracefully within 0.5-2 seconds of writer block. In many cases 0.5-2 seconds of writer downtime is acceptable and you can switch master even without allocating scheduled maintenance window. This means you can take actions such as upgrading to higher versions, faster machine, etc much more easily.


When a master crashes, MHA recovers rest slaves as below.

Fig: Steps for recovery

Basic algorithms are described in the slides presented at the MySQL Conference and Expo 2011, especially from page no.13 to no.34.

In relay log files on slaves, master's binary log positions are written at "end_log_pos" sections (example). By comparing the latest end_log_pos between slaves, we can identify which relay log events are not sent to each slave. MHA internally recovers slaves (fixes consistency issues) by using this mechanism. In addition to basic algorithms covered in the slides at the MySQL Conf 2011, MHA does some optimizations and enhancements, such as generating differential relay logs very quickly (indenpendent from relay log file size), making recovery work with row based formats, etc.

MHA Components

MHA consists of MHA Manager and MHA Node as below.

Fig: MHA components

MHA Manager has manager programs such as monitoring MySQL master, controlling master failover, etc.

MHA Node has failover helper scripts such as parsing MySQL binary/relay logs, identifying relay log position from which relay logs should be applied to other slaves, applying events to the target slave, etc. MHA Node runs on each MySQL server.

When MHA Manager does failover, MHA manager connects MHA Node via SSH and executes MHA Node commands when needed.


* Master failover and slave promotion can be done very quickly

MHA normally can do failover in seconds (9-12 seconds to detect master failure, optionally 7-10 seconds to power off the master machine to avoid split brain, a few seconds or more for applying differential relay logs to the new master, so total downtime is normally 10-30 seconds), unless all slaves delay replication seriously. After recovering the new master, MHA recovers the rest slaves in parallel. Even though you have tens of slaves, it does not affect master recovery time, and you can recover slaves very quickly.

* Master crash does not result in data inconsistency

When the current master crashes, MHA automatically identifies differential relay log events between slaves, and applies to each slave. So finally all slaves can be in sync, as long as all slave servers are alive.
By using together with Semi-Synchronous Replication, (almost) no data loss can also be guaranteed.

* No need to modify current MySQL settings (MHA works with regular MySQL (5.0 or later))

One of the most important design principles of MHA is to make MHA easy to use as long as possible. MHA works with existing traditional MySQL 5.0+ master-slaves replication environments. Though many other HA solutions require to change MySQL deployment settings, MHA does not force such tasks for DBAs. MHA works with the most common two-tier single master and multiple slaves environments. MHA works with both asynchronous and semi-synchronous MySQL replication. Installing/Uninstalling/Starting/Stopping/Upgrading/Downgrading MHA can be done without changing (including starting/stopping) MySQL replication. When you need to upgrade MHA to newer versions, you don't need to stop MySQL. Just replace with newer MHA versions and restart MHA Manager is fine.

MHA works with normal MySQL versions starting from MySQL 5.0. Some HA solutions require special MySQL versions (i.e. MySQL Cluster, MySQL with Global Transaction ID, etc), but you may not like to migrate applications just for master HA. In many cases people have already deployed many legacy MySQL applications and they don't want to spend too much time to migrate to different storage engines or newer bleeding edge distributions just for master HA. MHA works with normal MySQL versions including 5.0/5.1/5.5 so you don't need to migrate.

* No need to increase lots of servers

MHA consists of MHA Manager and MHA Node. MHA Node runs on the MySQL server when failover/recovery happens so it doesn't require additional server. MHA Manager normally runs on a dedicated server so you need to add one (or two for HA) server(s), but MHA Manager can monitor lots of (even 100+) masters from single server, so the total number of servers is not increased so much. Note that it is even possible to run MHA Manager on one of slave servers. In this case total number of servers is not increased at all.

* No performance penalty

MHA works with regular asynchronous or semi-synchronous MySQL replication. When monitoring master server, MHA just sends ping packets to master every N seconds (default 3) and it does not send heavy queries. You can expect as fast performance as regular MySQL replication.

* Works with any storage engine

MHA works with any storage engines as long as MySQL replication works, not limited to InnoDB (crash-safe, transactional storage engine). Even though you use legacy MyISAM environments that are not easy to migrate, you can use MHA.

Production case study

I'm using MHA on our (DeNA's) production environments. We manage more than 100 MySQL applications (master/slave pairs) from a few old (32bit, 3GB RAM) manager servers (one manager per datacenter), and so far working very well. MHA does not spend resources at monitoring stage so managing hundreds of MySQL applications from single manager running on an old machine is totally possible (CPU util is 0-3% in total).
We have been frequently using MHA for online master switch. Some popular social games grow more rapidly than we expect. In many cases scaling out (sharding) is chosen, but scaling up (increasing RAM, replacing HDD with SSD, etc) is sometimes better than scaling out. We switch master from a slower machine to a faster machine (and vice versa) by using MHA (MHA has a separated online master switch command), and we have been able to switch more than 10 masters with only 0.5-1 second of downtime (not being able to connect to master) each. 0.5-1 second downtime is acceptable in our cases. Social game users (especially paying users) tend to be very strict on performance and availability, but we haven't received any inquiries/complaints when switching masters with MHA.

SkySQL provides commercial support for MHA

After I presented about MHA at the MySQL Conference in April, many people told me that they were interested in trying MHA. I'm happy if many people use my software and satisfied with it. On the other hand, I'm a full time employee at DeNA, and DeNA does not provide software support/consulting business so I can't provide 24x7 support/consulting by myself. What if you want such services? Hopefully SkySQL has decided to offer that. You can get 24x7 support of MHA (and of course, MySQL) from SkySQL! I have many ex-MySQL friends at SkySQL and they have excellent expertise to provide MySQL related support services. If you are interested, go to SkySQL website and talk with their sales representatives.

I'm attending OSCON and introduce MHA at my session, so if you are interested and staying at OSCON, I'd like to talk with you.


Gerry Narvaja said...

This sounds like a great tool, but if I understood correctly, it doesn't support a configuration where you have a pair of servers set up in master-master configuration where one of the masters is a stand by server. Did I miss something?


Yoshinori Matsunobu said...


This is documented here (, but you are right. Currently MHA does NOT support master-master configuration.

In general, as long as MHA manages automated failover, the reason for using multi-master configuration is limited, such as online schema changes. If you want to use multi-master configuration tentatively (i.e. just for schema change), just stop MHA and configure multi-master during operations. After the operation completes, make single master and multiple slave configuratoins again, then restart MHA.

If you are currently using master-master replication (and a few slaves) just because you want to promote the (standby) master to the new master, MHA can do the same thing by setting candidate_master parameter in MHA.

yG1 said...

Thanks for release this marvelous software !!!
First time I can see something like that, nobody else had releases similar tools.
That's the end of 'change master to' manual operations ...

Rick James said...

If there is a network glitch, and the monitoring cannot get to the machine -- How can it distinguish between the server being dead and the network 'hiding' it?

Yoshinori Matsunobu said...


On our environment, we check master reachability from three hosts. Manager, and two hosts on remote data centers. MHA decides the master is dead only when 1. master is not reachable from manager, 2. remote servers are reachable from manager, and 3. master is not reachable from both remote servers. So MHA can highly likely avoid that "doing failover even though master is actually alive" situation.

Please check MHA wiki for details.

pachanga said...


Thanks a lot for this software, I'm definitely going to check it out.

From your practice what is the biggest source of MySQL fails? Software or hardware? I'm running a dozen of MySQL servers and sometimes I simply don't what to blame: MySQL data becomes corrupted from time to time. Changing hardware(raid controllers, memory, mother boards, etc) doesn't help much... Corruptions do happen once in a month a two...

SEO USA said...

It looks like a great tool, thanks for sharing this great overview.

Yoshinori Matsunobu said...


In our cases, in most cases hardware problems. MySQL hasn't crashed or got corrupted so many times (don't use MyISAM).

Naoya Hashimoto said...

I was just looking for a way for automating mysql failover on the public cloud, so it's quite helpful that users can choose enabling or disabling ip failover, as most of the servers on the public cloud can not have virtual ip.

Anonymous said...

The idea behind this tool is really great.
But i wonder how the following situation is managed.

Sometimes, the box on which tha master is running became unreacheable, no ssh , no login can be made. The unique solution is to press Reset Button.
If the binlog file on the master in not closed properly, when myslqbinlog utlilty is run, the followind error is returned :

ERROR: Error in Log_event::read_log_event(): 'read error', data_len: 69, event_type: 2
Could not read entry at offset 504545220:Error in log format or read error

In other situations, the binlog is closed properly but some executed statements
are missing. This can be verified by comparing relay log on the slaves and the binlog on the master.

Then, the binlog on the master cannot be used.

How MHA handle this situtation?

Stofa. Kenida.

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Yoshinori Matsunobu said...


If the dead master is not reachable via SSH, MHA does not save binary log events from the dead master but continues failover. This means slaves will be consistent each other, but binary log events that exist only on the dead master will be lost (or you'll have to apply manually).

So the read error on mysqlbinlog you mention does not happen.

The reasons for skipping saving binlog events are as follows.
- Recovering from power failure normally takes minutes or more, or even takes forever (i.e. power unit is broken), which will result in very long downtime
- Without using sync-binlog=1, there is no guarantee that the dead master has all binlog events
- By using semi-synchronous replication, you can minimize data loss even though skipping saving binlog events from master

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Anonymous said...

great :) I use to work in a company that had a similar tool. It is awesome to be able to count in such thing again. thanks a lot

Alexander said...

Hi Yoshinori!
The work seems to be awesome!

I'd really like to try the solution, but getting some weird errors when trying the first thing --

masterha_check_ssh --conf=/etc/

Bizarre copy of HASH in sassign at /usr/share/perl/5.10/Carp/ line 96.

I am using perl, v5.10.1 (*) built for x86_64-linux-gnu-thread-multi

Google hivemind suggests this is a perl bug, but no way to fix it - only work around in code :(

Can you please specify the version needed to run the setup? e.g. one which works :).

Thank you in advance!

Yoshinori Matsunobu said...


I've tested with Perl 5.8.5, 5.8.8 and 5.10.1 (CentOS6), and works without any problem. Would you please describe more in offline (my e-mail address is written on my profile page) which distribution you are using?

Anonymous said...

I have tried this tool, it's really a great tool in doing the master failover.

I have one question:

In the wiki, the relay_log_purge is suggested to be set to OFF. I did that and start testing the failover. After the failover is successfully done and I checked this parameter again and it's set back to ON.

It means I have to set them to OFF manually before I start the manager next time. Is it designed to be this?

Yoshinori Matsunobu said...


relay_log_purge is implicitly turned to ON by MySQL itself sometimes, including when executing CHANGE MASTER. MHA internally executes CHANGE MASTER so relay_log_purge is set to ON. This applies when you execute CHANGE MASTER manually, too.

I can modify MHA Manager to check relay_log_purge parameter before executing CHANGE MASTER and set that value (executing SET GLOBAL relay_log_purge=0 or 1) after executing CHANGE MASTER, but I recommend another approach: Executing relay_log_purge script included in MHA Node package regularly, and setting --disable-relay-log-purge argument. See the online manual for details.

By using this, you can safely remove unneeded relay logs and set relay_log_purge=0 automatically.

Przemek said...

That's so great contribution to MySQL community - thank you !

I can see you use rather RHEL/CentOS distros ?
Have you had a chance to try those tools under Ubuntu or Debian ?

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In general, until the MHA manages the automatic failover, the reason for using multi-master configuration is limited, as the schema changes online. If you want to use multi-master of the initial configuration (ie, only the schema changes), stop at MHA and configure multi-master operation. After surgery is complete, do one of the host and slave configuratoins again, restart the MHA.

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Anonymous said...

Hi Yoshinori,

I'm about to set it all up but I'm not able to run masterha_manager because of some error in master_ip_failover script:
Bareword "FIXME_xxx" not allowed while "strict subs" in use at /root/mha4mysql-manager-0.53/samples/scripts/master_ip_failover line 88.
If I declare it as FIXME_XXX() the script gets through, but then it fails on power_manager script:
Undefined subroutine &main::FIXME_xxx called at /root/mha4mysql-manager-0.53/samples/scripts/power_manager line 388.
What should I do? What Do I need to change?

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While switching the master with " masterha_master_switch --master_state=alive

lets take host1 is old master and it is in alive state, host2 is new master ( which we wants to ).

why this tool is not taking care of alive old master. As it is in alive state, why can't we switch this to new slave.

What are the possible cases that we will think about manual switching with alive master.

Please advice..

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